During winter, there are some handy tips and tricks for healthy winter gardens.
• Now that the cooler weather of winter is here, gardens don't loose as much water to evaporation as they do in summer. Because of this, soils can easily waterlog if over watered, particularly on the southern side of homes and in well shaded areas.
• If you have an automatic watering system, during these cooler months reduce the watering time to at least half that of summer.
• When watering, do so in the morning so that both soil & plants can dry off before night time. This will reduce fungal disease. If possible, water directly onto soil & not onto plant foliage. Fungal diseases love wet conditions and if the plant leaves are wet during the night; this creates ideal conditions for fungal diseases to breed, so this is very important for healthy plant growth.
The most common pruning error is to not prune hard enough. The winter pruning time is when all the mess and clutter is removed, leaving a basic framework for the rose to renew itself in spring. In our climates, winter pruning is done in July or early August. Leave it until the later date if your garden experiences frost. By July, new growth may be appearing, so get out the secateurs and start to prune away the old growth.
Where frosts occur, delay pruning so new growth will not begin until after the frosts have finished or your rose will be damaged.
While most roses do the right thing and go dormant in winter, some refuse to stop flowering. ‘Iceberg’ is one that flowers well into winter – mine still have a few scrappy flowers on them. Don’t worry about a few lingering flowers. Cut them off and get on with the pruning.
There are some roses that don’t get pruned in winter. Any roses that only flower in late winter or spring are left until after they’ve flowered before pruning. If you make a mistake, you will reduce flowering. Hold off pruning banksia roses, most of the old-fashioned roses, some climbers and most ramblers.
How to prune Step-by-step
Step 1 Go over the rose, cutting everything back by about one-third. Remove any lingering flowers and leaves. Remove any suckers (growth from the root system below the graft). This makes the rose more accessible for more detailed follow-up pruning.
Step 2 Next, remove any spindly growth, dead branches and very old brown or grey wood, cutting all this unwanted growth off low down on the plant. Use the pruning saw to cut thick stems.
Step 3 Select three or five green, healthy, vigorous branches as the framework for the next season’s growth. Remove any other unwanted stems and then cut back the framework branches to an outward facing bud. An outward facing bud is selected to encourage growth away from the centre of the plant.
Step 4 Remove all the pruning debris, including fallen leaves and flowers from earlier in the year. Spray the pruned rose and ground with lime sulphur to control pests and diseases such as black spot. The spraying is done immediately after pruning as, if left, it will burn new shoots.
Step 5 With pruning and spraying completed, renew the mulch around your rose with a 5cm layer of organic matter such as lucerne, sugar cane, compost or manure. Water well when new growth begins.